How do I cite this in my bibliography?


Dayah, M. (1997, October 1). Ptable: Periodic Table. Ptable.


Dayah, Michael. Ptable: Periodic Table. Ptable, 1 Oct. 1997, Accessed 4 Aug. 2020.

What makes Ptable different?

A true web application
Many other periodic tables use the word interactive to describe themselves while offering nothing more than links to pages of data about elements. Pages of data are fine, and Ptable "outsources" these write-ups to the heavily-curated and quickly revised Wikipedia. Ptable shines when used as a true application, more interactive and dynamic than any standalone software. Please continue reading to learn about all the interesting things you can do with Ptable that make Mendeleev's creation come alive.
Read while you browse
Want to read about elements while perusing the table? Write-up windows can be torn off or docked to the edges (depending on your pop-up blocker settings) to allow simultaneous use of the table while reading.
Instantly change layouts
Use the check boxes at the top of the page to dynamically switch between simple, with names, with electron configuration, and inline inner transition metals. As you resize your browser, Ptable resizes with it.
Realtime data view
Select Properties and move your mouse over any element to instantly update 16 properties as well as a detailed view of that element.
Instantly swap data
Only want to see one piece of data at a time, like electronegativity? Whatever you choose in the Properties tab appears in place of atomic weight.
Visualize trends
Does atomic radius increase or decrease with group? Select it and the color of all elements will change in proportion to their values.
Reliable source data
Data is acquired from primary sources and curated libraries such as the excellent Wolfram|Alpha. Layout and presentation were reviewed by the world's foremost periodic table academic Eric Scerri and match the official layout offered by IUPAC. Significant digits are preserved in readouts whenever space permits. Translations and non-English element names, however, should be considered no more reliable than Wikipedia.
State of matter slider
Drag the slider above the nonmetals and see the state of matter of each element at that temperature.
Time machine
After selecting discovery year in Properties, use the slider to go back in time and display only the elements discovered by that year.
Data subsets
Once you've selected a dataset, the slider area reveals related properties. After selecting radius, for example, covalent, empirical, calculated, and van der Waals radii are available. All told, the slider area exposes another 17 properties in addition to the 16 shown, not including the first 30 ionization energies, allowing efficiency functioning on multiple levels and in multiple dimensions.
Complete orbital readout for each element's ground state, quantum numbers, oxidation states, and diagram following Hund's rules. Hover over each electron pair for a 3-D view of that orbital or hover over the element to view its highest energy level electron pair.
Click an element in the isotope view to overlay selected or all known isotopes. Hover over to fan through like a deck of cards as 5 properties update including half-life. Borders indicate primary decay mode.
Compound mixing
Click elements in the compounds tab to see possible compounds they form, complete with Wikipedia articles when available. As you narrow your search, other elements that do not form compounds with your chosen elements will dim. Elements that do combine will show the number of potential compounds in their atomic weight area. Miniature elements will appear in the close-up area which you can adjust with arrows to only match compounds with a specific number of that atom.
Compound searching
Type the CAS number or name of a compound to find all matching compounds. As you search, elements not in matching compounds will dim. Typing acid in the slider area search box dims all but the nonmetals. Looking at the numbers in the atomic weight area, we can see that there are about 300-400 acids, and most contain hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.
Formula searching
Enter a formula into the slider area search box to find all compounds matching those elements, regardless of the order in which you enter them. Require an exact formula by adjusting the miniature elements in the slider area or entering the formula's subscript numbers.
Dozens of languages
Element names in dozens of languages. If your browser sends a compatible language header, you'll be automatically served the site in the language you prefer. Force a different language using the drop down box. Why is it important for the periodic table to be offered in so many languages?
Symbol origins
Why is lead Pb and mercury Hg? Choose the Latin translation to see the origin of element symbols.
Instant search
Can't seem to find an element? Type its name, symbol, or atomic number into the box at the top right and it will instantly highlight. You can even do advanced searches. Entering ~200 in the first tab finds the element with atomic weight nearest 200. Searching for =3 in Orbitals highlights all elements with oxidation state +3. Even expressions like >1000 or 400-800 confine results to those ranges.
Tablet friendly
Layouts for your tablet allow viewing on the go in both portrait and landscape rotations.
Deep linking
Want to save the URL for a specific visualization or send someone a link to a list of compound search results you're viewing? Just send them the URL in the address bar and they will see what you are seeing.
Print any view or visualization you can see. The print style sheet will take care of removing extraneous clutter. Just remember to print background colors (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari), select landscape, and minimize the margins.
Latest new elements
The day a new element is discovered or synthesized, we'll have the details for you. We even keep up with new, more precise relative atomic weights as IUPAC publishes them and keep in touch with prominent chemistry scholars and standards bodies regarding the layout of the table and categorization of elements, which are much more fluid than you might imagine.
Small and fast
Built from the ground up to be extremely fast and efficient, Ptable is pure JavaScript made with no frameworks or libraries. Other sites' strength and their speed are still based in a world that is built on libraries. Because of that, they will never be as strong or as fast as Ptable.
Keyboard accessible
Not a mouse user? Your keyboard's tab and arrow keys expose the full functionality of the site. Enter and Escape open and close the Wikipedia window, just like you'd expect. Arrow keys, PgUp/PgDn, and Home/End also manipulate the slider when activated.
Flexible interface
Whether you prefer to hover around or click to view data, the site accommodates you by offering a click-to-lock interface in the Properties and Orbitals tabs. Hovering accesses most of the interactivity until the first click, which locks whatever element you're viewing in place until another is clicked or the same element is clicked again to revert to hover mode. Hovering is never necessary to reveal data or interactivity; clicks do it all—important for tablets and interactive whiteboards like the SMART Board.

Can I buy a poster?

Yes! Our periodic table posters are available on vinyl in sizes from 3 to 15 feet wide, and are designed for high distance legibility. Get closer and each element's square reveals 27 additional properties, and goes together great with our free printouts and lesson plans.

Can I print it?

The PDF can be distributed as is in printed form without permission provided it or whatever it is included in is not sold for any amount of money. It must also be offered in its original form with no additional or removed branding. Contact me if this is unclear or to inquire about including it in published materials. I'll most likely let you use it but request a copy of whatever it's going into.

Can I link to it?

Please do! Others' links are what made it popular enough in search engines for you to find it in the first place.

Can I upload it to my site?

Electronic redistribution is strictly prohibited. Do not save the site or any portion of it and then offer it to others through electronic means including but not limited to a web site, CD, or flash drive. While the periodic table itself is public domain, the web application I've created and its design are copyright me. Secondary reproductions in an educational context are allowed. For example, recording and annotating a video of the site to illustrate periodic trends and then uploading this to YouTube is acceptable. Contact me for clarification.

When was it made?

Ptable has a rich history stretching back to September 1997, a year before the founding of Google. It was introduced as a piece of HTML artwork and published to the web October 1, 1997. Simple dictionary element descriptions were added later in December. A version utilizing HTML 4 and CSS was introduced March 1999 and replaced the original version September 2004. Wikipedia integration and the addition of other languages came in August 2005. Dynamic layout switching was later added in September. The first low resolution-friendly layout (no names) came in October 2006. Interactivity was radically enhanced throughout summer 2007 and continues into the present day. Enjoy historic versions.

Privacy policy

This web server retains only standard access logs. No personal information is collected. Logs will not be shared with any other entity. Cookies store site preferences such as layout and last used tab.


If you're not a fan of the single ad banner, you can donate on Patreon and hide ads. It's also immensely helpful if you buy a poster and leave a favorable review. However, if you wish to show your appreciation and inspire further enhancement, consider writing me a letter or sending a postcard to

PO Box 2
Knoxville, TN

Ptable® is a registered trademark of Michael Dayah